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2020年12月24日 (木)


Halloween, Also Known As All Hallows' Eve, Can Be Traced Back About 2,000 Years To a Pre-Christian Celtic Festival Held Around Nov. 1 Called Samhain (Pronounced "Sah-Win"), Loosely Translates To "Summer's End" In Gaelic, According To The Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries.


Because Ancient Records Are Sparse And Fragmentary, The Exact Nature Of Samhain Is Not Fully Understood; But It Was An Annual Communal Meeting At The End Of The Harvest Year, a Time To Gather Resources For The Winter Months And Bring Animals Back From The Pastures. Samhain Is Also Thought To Have Been a Time Of Communing With The Dead, According To Folklorist John Santino.


Halloween Princess Jasmine Cosplay Provides a Safe Way To Play With The Concept Of Death, Santino Said. People Dress Up As The Living Dead, And Fake Gravestones Adorn Front Lawns — Activities That Wouldn't Be Tolerated At Other Times Of The Year, He Said.


But According To Nicholas Rogers, a History Professor At York University In Toronto And Author Of "Halloween: From Pagan Ritual To Party Night" (Oxford University Press, 2003), "There Is No Hard Evidence That Samhain Was Specifically Devoted To The Dead Or To Ancestor Worship.


"According To The Ancient Sagas, Samhain Was The Time When Tribal Peoples Paid Tribute To Their Conquerors And When The Sidh [Ancient Mounds] Might Reveal The Magnificent Palaces Of The Gods Of The Underworld," Rogers Wrote. Samhain Was Less About Death Or Evil Than About The Changing Of Seasons And Preparing For The Dormancy (And Rebirth) Of Nature As Summer Turned To Winter, He Said.


Though a Direct Connection Between Halloween And Samhain Has Never Been Proven, Many Scholars Believe That Because All Saints' Day (Or All Hallows' Mass, Celebrated On Nov. 1) And Samhain, Are So Close Together On The Calendar That They Influenced Each Other And Later Combined Into The Celebration Now Called Halloween.

The Tradition Of Dressing In Costumes And Trick-Or-Treating May Go Back To The Practice Of "Mumming" And "Guising," In Which People Would Disguise Themselves And Go Door-To-Door, Asking For Food, Santino Said. Early Costumes Were Usually Disguises, Often Woven Out Of Straw, He Said, And Sometimes People Wore Costumes To Perform In Plays Or Skits.


The Practice May Also Be Related To The Medieval Custom Of "Souling" In Britain And Ireland, When Poor People Would Knock On Doors On Hallowmas (Nov. 1), Asking For Food In Exchange For Prayers For The Dead.


By The Late 1800s, The Tradition Of Playing Tricks On Halloween Was Well Established. In The United States And Canada, The Pranks Included Tipping Over Outhouses, Opening Farmers' Gates And Egging Houses. But By The 1920s And 1930s, The Celebrations More Closely Resembled An Unruly Block Party, And The Acts Of Vandalism Got More Serious.


Some People Believe That Because Pranking Was Starting To Get Dangerous And Out Of Hand, Parents And Town Leaders Began To Encourage Dressing Up And Trick-Or-Treating As a Safe Alternative To Doing Pranks, Santino Said.


However, Halloween Was As Much a Time For Festivities And Games As It Was For Playing Tricks Or Asking For Treats. Apples Are Associated With Halloween, Both As a Treat And In The Game Of Bobbing For Apples, a Game That Since The Colonial Era In America Was Used For Fortune-Telling. Legend Has It That The First Person To Pluck An Apple From The Water-Filled Bucket Without Using His Or Her Hands Would Be The First To Marry, According To The Book "Halloween And Commemorations Of The Dead" (Chelsea House, 2009) By Roseanne Montillo.


Apples Were Also Part Of Another Form Of Marriage Prophecy. According To Legend, On Halloween (Sometimes At The Stroke Of Midnight), Young Women Would Peel An Apple Into One Continuous Strip And Throw It Over Her Shoulder. The Apple Skin Would Supposedly Land In The Shape Of The First Letter Of Her Future Husband's Name.


Another Halloween Witch Costumes Ritual Involved Looking In a Mirror At Midnight By Candlelight, For a Future Husband's Face Was Said To Appear. (A Scary Variation Of This Later Became The "Bloody Mary" Ritual Familiar To Many School Kids.) Like Many Such Childhood Games, It Was Likely Done In Fun, Though At Least Some People Took It Seriously.



In Austria, Dirndls Continue To Be Worn On Public Occasions, Even By Younger Women. The Dirndl Is Considered An Important Part Of Alpine Folk Culture. Other Aspects Of Folk Culture Are Lederhosen For Men, Traditional Sports (e.g. Shooting, Music, Crossbow), Skills (e.g. Embroidery) And Musical Traditions (e.g. Singing Christmas Carols And Schuhplattler Dance Groups).The Folk Culture Is Promoted By And Protected By Local Folk Culture Associations, Which Are Affiliated With The Bund Der Österreichischen Trachten- Und Heimatverbände (Federation Of Austrian Folk Bavarian Garment And Homeland Associations).


The Catholic Church Has Played An Important Role In Promoting The Dirndl In Austria; Traditional Dress Is Worn For Worship Services, Especially The Major Church Holidays (e.g. Easter, Pentecost, Corpus Christi) And Saints´ Feast Days. The Tyrol Has a Tradition Of The Heiligen Tracht (Holy Folk Costume), Which Is Not To Be Worn On Secular Occasions Marked By Drinking.

Folk Costume Also Continues To Be Worn For Most Weddings And Festivals. Old Traditions Are Carefully Maintained Among Inhabitants Of Alpine Areas, Even Though This Is Seldom Obvious To The Visitor: Many People Are Members Of Cultural Associations Where The Alpine Folk Culture Is Cultivated. At Cultural Events, The Traditional Dirndl Is The Expected Dress For Women. Visitors Can Get a Glimpse Of The Rich Customs Of The Alps At Public Volksfeste. Even When Large Events Feature Only a Little Folk Culture, All Participants Take Part With Gusto. Good Opportunities To See Local People Celebrating The Traditional Culture Occur At The Many Fairs, Wine Festivals And Firefighting Festivals Which Fill Weekends In The Austrian Countryside From Spring To Autumn. Only In The Region Surrounding Vienna Is The Traditional Folk Culture Not a Regular Part Of Daily Life.


Some Regions Are Particularly Known For Their Strong Dirndl Traditions, Such As The Tyrol, The Salzkammergut And The Wachau Region Of Lower Austria.


In Austria, The Dirndl Is a Symbol Of National Identity, Seen In Austria As a National Symbol. In Tourist Settings, Staff In Offices, Restaurants, Wineries And Shops Often Wear Dirndls As a Work Uniform; This Is Also The Case In The Non-Alpine Regions In The East Of Austria.Even In Everyday Life, Many Austrian Women Wear Dirndls As An Alternative To Other Fashions.


Festivals At Which Dirndls Are Expected Dress Include Festivities For Raising The Maypole On The 1st May, The Narzissenfest (Daffodil Festival) During May In Bad Aussee,The Salzburg Festival And The Ausseer Kirtag In September.Styles Are Both Less Extravagant And Show Less Décolletage Than At Oktoberfest Costumes.


In Austria, And Other Parts Of South Central Europe, There Are Literally Splashy Events Known As Dirndlspringen, In Which Attractive Young Women, Are Judged By How Well They Dive From a Diving Board Into a Lake Or a Swimming Pool While Wearing The Dirndl, Using It As a Swimdress.


Herve Leger, Who Has Died Aged 60, Was The French Couturier Who Created The Bandage Dresses – Hailed As One Of The Iconic Dresses Of All Time, It Made Its Way From Catwalks To The High Street.


Made For Women With “With a Bosom, a Waist And Curves”, The Dress Became a Hit With The “Body Conscious” Hollywood Jet Set Of The 1990s And Noughties And Brought a New Sexiness To The Catwalk, Personified By Cindy Crawford, Plus a Plethora Of Actresses.

Liz Hurley Was Also One Of The Early Adopters Of The Dress.


With Success, Leger Needed To Expand His Business Into Ready-To-Wear In Order To Compete In The 1990s. Financial Backing Came From The Canadian Drinks Conglomerate Seagram. Initially, All Seemed Well With Leger Producing 8,000 Pieces a Season, As Against 160 Two Years Earlier. However, With More And More Investment Forthcoming, Leger’s Holding Diminished Until Seagram Owned 95 Per Cent Of The Business.


To His Consternation, It Then Sold The Company To La-Based Max Azria’s Bcbg. Within a Year He And Azria Had Fallen Out. Leger Found Himself Fired From His Own Label And Lost The Rights To The Leger Name.


Born In 1957, In The Small Town Of Bapaume, 20 Miles South Of Arras, Northern France, Herve Peugnet Left Home At 18 And Headed To Paris To Study Sculpture And Art History At The Ecole Nationale Superieure Des Beaux-Arts. After Just a Year, However, He Dropped Out, Later Recalling, “It Was The Seventies, And Everyone Was On Strike”.


Wanting a Job That Made Use Of His Hands And His Curiosity About The Properties All Types Of Fibres, He Embarked Upon a Hairdressing Apprenticeship – Effectively Training With a Difficult Fibre. Soon He Was Working Backstage At Fashion Shows For Houses Such As Chloe And Ysl. He Was Taught Himself To Make Hats And Dresses, And Secured Contract Work For Lanvin, Swarovski And Costume Designer Tan Giudicelli.


It Was a Meeting At a Chloe Dinner Party In 1980, With German Couturier Karl Lagerfeld, However, Which Was To Change His Direction And His Life. “The Kaiser” Wanted a New Assistant And Asked To See Peugnet’s Sketches. Although Less Than Impressed, Lagerfeld Took Him On. The Pair Work Together At Fendi In Rome And Then Back At Chanel In Paris.


Four Years Later, Peugnet Was Ready To Set Up His Own Business. On The Advice Of Lagerfeld, Claiming It Was Too Difficult For Anglophones To Pronounce, Peugnet Changed His Name To Leger, Taken From The French Word “Legerete” – Lightness.

The Label Herve Leger Launched In 1985 And, By The Late 1980s, The Bandage Dress Had Arrived, Which Appealed Because Of Its Tightness And Ability To Hold The Figure Positively, In And Up – This Allowed Unrestricted Poses For The Cameras. His First Full Collection In This Style Was Shown In 1991.


The Inception Of “The Bandage Dress Was a Simple One,” He Once Recalled. “One Day In a Factory, I Found Some Bands That Were Headed For The Garbage. As a Hat Maker, They Gave Me The Idea Of Taking Those Bands And Putting Them Next To One Another As One Does Making a Hat, Using The Elastic Properties Of The Material (Rather Than Draping) To Provide Its Form.

He Also Designed Active Swimwear And Tights, Too. In 1994 Ballet Costumes For Roland Petit’s Company At The Paris Opera.

Following The Loss Of His Label, Leger Kept a Lower Profile Until 2000, When He Founded His Own Independently Financed Fashion House With His Sister Jocelyne: Herve L Leroux. This New Surname Was Again Suggested By His Friend And Mentor Lagerfeld. He Had Chosen Leroux On The Basis That Leger Had Once Had Red Hair “And Everyone Will Know Who You Are.”


The Fledgling Business Struggled Financially, However, Although Leger Persisted, Making Couture And Swimwear For Private Clients. Between 2004 And 2006, He Worked As Creative Director At Guy Laroche, Dressing Hilary Swank In a Memorable Backless Midnight-Blue Jersey Gown, For The 2005 Oscars Where She Won Best Actress. He Also Worked For The High-End Austrian Manufacturer Wolford.


In 2007, Azria Launched His Version Of Leger’s Bandage Dresses, Worn By The Likes Of Kim Kardashian, Which Paradoxically Raised Leroux’s Profile. He Subsequently Started Getting New Clients From All Spheres Of The Celebrity World, Including Cate Blanchett, Kylie Minogue, Jemima Khan, Naomi Watts, Taylor Swift And Kim Kardashian.


His Passion Was Still In Garments That Clung To a Female Form But He Had Begun To Use Different Techniques To Mould The Body, Replacing Strip And Panel Structures With Draped Cloth, Working In Soft Viscose And Silk Jerseys – An Elegant Departure From The Skin-Tight Silhouette Of The Herve Leger Gown. Dita Von Teese Noted Leroux Was In The Same Classical Class As The Great Parisian Couturiere Madame Gres, Both Having Been Inspired By The Materials Depicted In Greek Sculpture.


Herve Leger’s Form-Fitting Bandage Dresses Have Their Iconic Place In Fashion’s History And The Red Carpet, But When Time Progresses, Women’s Aesthetics Alter. Brands Must Adjust Or Face Falling Demand—a Dangerous Downward Spiral For Any Business. Herve Leger’s Response To These Changing Times Was To Tap The Couture Expertise And Modern Perspective Of Christian Juul Nielsen. The Smart Shift In Creative Direction Allowed Us To Find a Renewed Appreciation For The French House. Juul Nielsen Brings With Him a Resume That Includes Renowned Fashion Houses Christian Dior, Nina Ricci, Oscar De La Renta And Land Of Distraction, Which He Presently Helms.


For Those Who Feel Devoted To The Classic Herve Leger Dress, You’Ll Be Pleasantly Surprised And Actually Quite Intrigued. Juul Nielsen Has Kept The Invariant Characteristics Conceived By Herve Peugnet, Whom He Holds In Deep Regard While Leaving An Imprint That Is Solely His. A Collocation Of Bandage Knits To Billowing Shapes And The Introduction Of Tailoring Displays New Elegance And Movement—a Superb Fusion Of Juul Nielsen And Peugnet’s Visions. It’s With Great Pleasure We Bring You This Personal Look Into Christian Juul Nielsen’s Appointment As Creative Director For Herve Leger.


When You Took Over The Creative Direction At Herve Leger, We Saw a Modern Transition, Which We Highly Appreciate. Has It Been Difficult Shifting The Design Focus Away From The Past And Into Present-Day Aesthetics?


I Actually Went Back To The Beginning. I Spent a Lot Of Time Looking At The Styles From The Early ‘90s That Made Herve Leger So Unforgettable. The Styles Were Less Complicated And Felt More Modern To Me. I Decided To Bring Herve Leger Back To Its Roots And Base My Collections On This Era. So In a Way, I Did Go Back, I Just Went Back To The Beginning And Translated That Into New.


When The Possibility Of Joining Herve Leger Came About, What Prospects Excited You The Most, Prompting You To Take On The Endeavor?


Revamping a House With a Rich History And Identity Is a Fantastic Challenge. I Worked For Several Fashion Houses, Each With Its Own Strong Dna, Such As Dior And Nina Ricci. Part Of My Training Involved Repeatedly Going Back To The Beginning And Underlining What The Brand Was About. In This Case, I Was Excited About The Original Herve Aesthetic, The Modernity Of The Early Styles, The Energy Around The Girls Who Wore It, And About How I Could Take That Special Combination And Evolve It Into Something Relevant.


Your First Collections Incorporate Layers Of Beautiful Fringe, Boxy Knits, And Graceful Outerwear—Can You Share More On Your Vision And Long-Term Goals For The House? Even Those Aspects That Reach Beyond Design?


Bandage, Fringe And Cocktail Dresses Are All Part Of The Dna Of Herve, And I Will Continue Developing Them. Furthermore, We Are Diversifying The Collection With Separates And Daywear. In Fall, I Showed a Knitted Coat, And I Am Definitely Expanding Further Into Tailoring. I Really Love The Idea Of Tailored, Knitted Jackets. My Long-Term Goal Is To Continue To Breathe New Life Into This Brand And Make It Feel Fresh And Relevant Again.


People Are Inundated With Fads, Even More So Due To The Proliferation Of Technology And Social Platforms. How Do You, As Creative Director, Push To Catch The Eyes Of Consumers In a Time Where Attention Spans Are Shortening?


We Are Working In Different Ways On Different Platforms. I Provide General Direction And Vision To The Entire Team. Then Each Department Adapts That Concept For Their Platform, Whether It’s e-Commerce, Instagram Or An Ad Campaign.


I Spend a Lot Of Time Creating a Mood And Aesthetic That I Feel Is Relevant To The Brand, Compiling a Portfolio Of Images Each Season. Every Collection Is First Shot As a Lookbook. Then We Shoot a Lifestyle Campaign In La, Which Is More Approachable But Still Carries The Same Vibe. That Concept Trickles Down To Other Content Shoots For Digital And Social. So Each Department Has a Lot To Work With And Can Use Their Respective Expertise To Adapt It For Their Platform.


On a Personal Note, Looking Back, What Initially Piqued Your Curiosity For Clothing Design?


I Have Been Sketching For As Long As I Remember. My Grandmother Gave Me Fabrics As a Child, And I Used Them To Make Herve Leger Bandage Dress For Dolls And For My Sisters. I Soon Realized That The Combination Of Sketching And Draping Was Called Fashion Design. I’Ve Been Designing Ever Since.


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  Voices Herve Leger Dress Is Absolutely The Best When The Amount Of Appearance After Cutting, The Very Instructive, Herve Leger Bandage Dress In Purple And Gray Recognition In Adult Courts, And Is Absolutely The Right Decision.Herve Leger Bandage Got His First Break In The Work Of Web Designers Tan Celli Guide, Where He Studied The Patterns, Fabrics And The Selection Of Other Important Tasks At The Same Time Build a Court. Ledger Has Also Worked With Fashion Legend Karl Lagerfeld.


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